FOR B. V. Sc. & A.H. DEGREE
|Course No. & Course title
|| Credit Hrs.
|| Syllabus (please provide the teaching schedule)
|VPB-112 - General Veterinary Biochemistry
||Scope and importance of biochemistry. Structure of biological membranes and transport across membranes. Donnan membrane equilibrium. Dissociation of acids, pH, buffer systems, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Biochemistry of carbohydrates: Biological significance of important Monosaccharides (ribose, glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose and amino sugars), Disaccharides (maltose, isomaltose, lactose, sucrose & cellobiose), Polysaccharides, (starch, dextrins, dextrans, glycogen, cellulose, insulin, chitin), and Mucopolysaccharides including bacterial cell wall polysaccharides. Biochemistry of lipids: Properties and biological significance of simple, compound and derived lipids and lipoproteins. Structure and functions of prostaglandins. Chemistry of bile and bile acids. Biochemistry of proteins: Structure, properties and biological significance of proteins. Amino acids: classification and structure of neutral, basic and acidic amino acids. Properties of amino acids: amphoteric nature, optical activity, and peptide bond formation. Chemical reactions of proteins.
|VLD-411 - Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry and
||Training in examining clinical samples (biochemical, pathological, parasitological and bacteriological). Analysing and correlating with clinical findings and interpreting the results. Collection, labeling, transportation, and preservation of body fluid samples. Writing results and report Interpretation of date in relation to specific diseases. Clinical significance and interpretation of serum glucose, lipids, proteins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, ketone bodies, bilirubin & electrolytes from samples. Clinical significance and interpretation of examination of urine samples. Clinical evaluation of blood ( Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytic count erythrocytic sedimentation rate, total leukocytic count and differential leococytjc count) from clinical samples. Laboratory evaluation and diagnosis of samples for parasitic diseases
||(routine faecal examinations- direct smear method, simple sedimentation and floatation methods, Quantitative faecal examination, pastoral larval counts). Examination of skin scrapings, examination of blood smear/blood for diagnosis of blood protozoan diseases.
|VLD- 421 - Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnosis-II
||Evaluation of acid-base balance and interpretation. Biochemical aspects of digestive disorders, endocrine functions. Liver, kidney and pancreatic function tests. Role of enzymes for detection of tissue / organ affections. Preparation of microscopic slides from tissue collected for diagnosis and its' histopathological interpretation. Examination of biopsy and morbid material for laboratory diagnosis, Orientation to a clinical Microbiology laboratory, Collection, transport and processing of specimens from clinical cases for diagnosis of important bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Isolation of bacteria from clinical samples, Identification of bacteria by Grams staining and cultoral/btochemical characteristics. Drug sensitivity and rationale for therapy. Diagnosis of diseases by employing tests like Agar Gel precipitation Test Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Dot immunoassay, tube agglutination test, slide agglutination tests etc. Practice for separation of toxic materials from samples. Detection of arsenic, lead, antimony, mercury, copper, zinc, fluorides. Nitrates/nitrites cyanides and tannins in body fluids/tissues of animals. Evaluation of samples of toxic residues. Appreciation and differentiation of symptoms caused by various types of toxic materials including agrochemicals plants and drugs.Biochemistry of nucleic acids: Chemistry of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides. Biological significance of nucleosides & nucleotides. Structures and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and a typical ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Concentration of solutions - System international (S.I.) Units. Preparation/standardization of acids & alkalies. Preparation of buffers and determination of pH. Titration curve of acid versus base. Reactions of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides and their identification. Estimation of lactose in milk Determination of acid number of an oil. Colour reactions of proteins.
|VPB-122 Veterinary Intermediary Metabolism
Enzymes: Definition and classification, EC numbering of enzymes. Coenzymes, cofactors & iso-enzymes. Properties: Protein nature, enzyme-substrate complex formation, modem concept of the active center of enzyme. Specificity of enzyme action: Substrate specificity, group specificity, stereo or optical specificity. Factors influencing enzyme action: Effects of temperature, pH, concentration of substrate and enzyme. Enzyme units: International Units, katal, turnover number & specific activity. Enzyme inhibition: Competitive, non-competitive, uncompetitive inhibition & suicidal inhibition. Allosteric enzymes. Biological oxidation: Enzymes and coenzymes involved in oxidation and reduction viz. Oxidoreductases, oxidases, oxygenases, dehydrogenases, hydroperoxidases & cytochromes. Respiratory chain/ electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors, uncouplers and other factors influencing electron transport chain. Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP shunt, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycle, glycogenesis, glycogenosis, hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism & regulation of blood sugar Bioenergetics of carbohydrate metabolism Lipid metabolism: Bete oxidation of fatty acids, ketone body formation, biosyntheses of fatty acids, triacylglycerol, phospholipids & Apoprotein metabolism. Bioenergetics of lipid metabolism. Protein metabolism: Biosynthesis and degradation. Deamination, transamination and decarboxylation of amino acids. Ammonia transport and urea cycle Nucleic acids: Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. DNA & RNA biosynthesis. Integration of metabolism. Metabolic functions of macro and micro nutrients, Metabolic functions of lipid and water soluble vitamins. Uses of isotopes in metabolic studies.
Effect of pH and temperature on enzyme activity. Estimation of normal / abnormal constituents of urine. Electrophoretic separation of proteins. Paper chromatography.
||Estimation of bilirubin, blood glucose, electrolytes and other metabolic intermediaries in blood (colorimetry/ spectrophotometry/ flame photometry).
|VPB- 321 - Animal Biotechnology
Definitions, basic concepts and scope of animal biotechnology. Recombinant DNA.technology. Gene cloning, vectors and expression vectors. Transformation and transfection. Polymerised chain reaction (PCR), construction of genomic library and cDNA library. DNA sequencing. Principles of transfer of nucleic acids and proteins (Southern, Northern and Western blotting), Nucleic acid hybridization, DNA probes and DNA fingerprinting. Biotechnological application in animal improvements: Embryo biotechniques, in-vivo and in- vitro embryo production and preservation, sexing, micromanipulation and cloning, transgenic animal and biopharming. Mapping of genome and genome sequencing. Marker assisted selection. Gene banking. Nutritional biotechnology including bioconversion of lignocellulose, genetic manipulation of microbes for improved feed utilization and health. Animal tissue culture, transformation and cell lines, tumor markers and acute phase proteins Molecular diagnosis including PCR and DNA probes. Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies. New generation vaccines: Subunit recombinant and recombinant vectored vaccines Fermentation process and technologies for milk, meat and leather. Ethics arid regulatory issues in Biotechnology. IPR. Bioinfomnatics.
DNA and plasmid isolation. Gel electrophoresis. PCR. Screening of gametes and embryo. Use of Multimedia and audio-visual aids for molecular biology aspects.
|Unit I- General Veterinary Biochemistry
||Scope and importance of Biochemistry. Structure of cell membranes and transport across cell membrane. Donnan membrane equilibrium, Dissociation of acids, pH, Buffer system; and Henderson-Hasselbalch equation Biochemistry of Carbohydrates, Biological significance of Monosaccharides (ribose, glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, aminosugars), Disaccharides (maltose, isomaltose, lactose, sucrose and cellobiose), Polysaccharides (starch, dextrins,
||dextrans, glycogen, cellulose, inulin, chitin) Mucopolysaccharides including bacterial cell wall polysaccharides. Biochemistry of Lipids: Properties and biological significance of simple lipids, compound lipids and derived lipids and lipoproteins, Fat indices, Structure and functions of prostaglandins. Biochemistry of proteins: Classification, Structure, Properties - Biological significance of proteins. Amino acids : Structure and classification, Physical and chemical properties of amino acids - amphoteric nature, optical activity and peptide bond formation. Biochemistry of nucleic acids: Chemistry of purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides. Biological significance of nucleosides and nucleotides, Structure and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and typical ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Concentration of solutions and system International (S.I.) Units
Preparation/ standardization of acids and alkalies; Titration curve of acid versus base
Preparation of Buffers
Identification of unknown carbohydrates
Qualitative test for Monosaccharides
Qualitative test for Disaccharides
Qualitative test for Polysaccharides
Determination of acid number of an oil
Precipitation reactions of proteins
Colour reactions of proteins
Estimation of amino acids (Sorensen’s Method)
||Enzymes: Definition and classification. Coenzymes, cofactors & isoenzymes. Properties: Protein nature, Enzyme units: International units, katal, turnover number & Specific activity. Enzyme-substrate complex formation, Modern concept of active centre of enzyme, Specificity of enzyme action: substrate specificity, group specificity, stereo specificity, optical specificity. Factors influencing enzyme action: Effects of temperature, pH, concentration of substrate and enzyme. Enzyme inhibition: Competitive, non - competitive, uncompetitive and suicidal inhibition, Allosteric enzymes. Biological Oxidation: Enzymes and coenzymes involved in oxidation and reduction. Respiratory chain/ electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, Inhibitors, uncouplers and other factors influencing electron transport chain. Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, HMP shunt, Gluconeogenesis, Cori cycle, Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Bioenergetics of Carbohydrate
||metabolism, Lipid metabolism: Beta oxidation of fatty acid, Ketone body formation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids. Bioenergetics of lipid metabolism. Protein metabolism: Biosynthesis of proteins, Degradation of proteins. Deamination, Transamination & Decarboxylation of amino acids, Ammonia transport and urea cycle, Nucleic acids: Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, DNA & RNA biosynthesis and regulation, Regulation and Integration of metabolism
Effect of temperature and pH on enzyme activity
Estimation of blood/plasma Glucose
Estimation of serum Protein
Estimation of serum Inorganic phosphate
Estimation of serum Calcium
Estimation of serum Magnesium
Estimation of Ascorbic acid by Dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) method
Estimation of milk lactose by Benedicts quantitative method
Estimation of sodium and potassium by flame photometer
Paper / thin later Chromatography of amino acids (Demonstration)
Estimation of Vitamin A by colorimetry
|Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry
||Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism: Diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinism in Dogs, Ketosis, Bovine Ketosis, Pregnancy toxemia, hypoglycaemia in baby pigs, Hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of blood sugar. Biochemical tests for the detection of disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism. Plasma Proteins and clinical significance, Proteins and Dysproteinemias, Acute Phase proteins, Lipid Profile in disease diagnosis, Clinical Enzymology - Diagnostic importance of non-functional plasma enzymes and Isoenzymes, Liver function tests - Classification - Biochemical tests for differential diagnosis. Biochemical tests of renal function - Urine analysis - Role of BUN, Uric acid and Creatinine in diagnosis. Disturbance in acid base balance and its diagnosis. Biochemistry of digestive disorders. Biochemistry of oxidative stress and shock. Biochemical basis of fluid therapy. Detoxification in the body: Metabolism of xenobiotics, General reactions for biotransformation of different groups of
substances, Cytochrome p450 system of enzymes.
Detection of Pathological Constituents in Urine
||Assay of ALT in Serum
Assay of AST in Serum
Acute phase proteins (A/G Ratio)
Estimation of Total Serum Cholesterol
Estimation of Blood Urea Nitrogen
Estimation of Serum Creatinine
Estimation of serum billirubin (Direct, Indirect and Total)